Risk Factors for Covid-19 Infection

Covid-19 is an abbreviated form of coronavirus disease in 2019. Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that are common worldwide. They can cause respiratory disease in people and animals. It was specifically originated in the city of Wuhan in China in late 2019. Over the past two decades, outbreaks of coronavirus have caused global concern, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and most recently in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).



Covid-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can trigger what doctors call respiratory tract infections. It can affect the upper respiratory tract, ie. Sinus, nose, and throat or lower respiratory tract, ie. Windpipe, and lungs. Severe respiratory disease can occur in severe cases, and may even cause pneumonia.

On January 30, 2020, WHO declared Kovid-19 a global health emergency. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared it a global epidemic.

Risk


The following are the risk factors that make people prone to the possibility of Kovid-19 infection -

Age 65 and above -

People 65 and older are at greater risk of Kovid-19 infection due to their decreased immunity. They are prone to some associated co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, the course of the disease becomes more severe in them resulting in higher mortality. However, its transmission among the elderly population can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures.

Chronic lung disease and asthma -


People with asthma are more likely to catch Kovid-19. Hospital data suggest that respiratory patients are more likely to experience serious complications. As there is still no cure for it, the best action that can be taken is to protect people from infection. The same is true of other chronic lung diseases.

Severe heart condition -


Kovid-19 directly damages the lungs and triggers an inflammatory response, which puts stress on the cardiovascular system in two ways, ie. Infecting the lungs, the oxygen level in the blood falls and the inflammatory effect of the virus also reduces blood pressure. In such cases, the heart must be beaten fast and hard to supply oxygen to large organs.

According to the European Society of Cardiology, patients with heart failure, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias with advanced forms of right ventricular cardiomyopathy and congenital cyanotic heart disease have the highest risk.

Severe obesity


There are increasing numbers of reports that have linked obesity to more severe Kovid-19 infections and deaths. Obesity impairs protective cardio-respiratory stores and weakens immune regulation that appears to help progress the critical phase of the disease.

Researchers found that in New York City, people with Kovid-19 under the age of 60, whose BMI is greater than 30–34 kg / m2 and greater than 35 kg / m2, are 1.8 times and 3.6 times higher Likely to be admitted seriously. Care is respectively less than 30 kg / m2 compared to individuals with a BMI.

A new study published in 2020 in diabetes care has concluded that patients with Kovid-19 are two and a half times more likely to have severe pneumonia if they are not obese. Obesity brings with it a chronic inflammatory condition. Whether obesity is an independent risk factor for susceptibility to infection requires more research.

Diabetes -


Diabetes is a risk factor for hospitalization and mortality of Kovid-19 infection. In diabetic patients, the immune response is impaired for cytokine profile-related infections and changes in immune-responses, including T-cell and macrophage activation. Poor glycemic control also disrupts many aspects of the immune response to viral infections and potential bacterial secondary infections in the lungs. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for Kovid-19 infection and its adverse consequences. Therefore the importance of tight glycemic control in diabetic patients cannot be ignored.

Chronic Kidney Disease -


People with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of infection. People on dialysis may have a weakened immune system, making it difficult to fight infection. Nonetheless, kidney patients need to continue their regularly prescribed dialysis treatment and take the necessary precautions recommended by their healthcare provider.

People with kidney transplants need to take anti-rejection medications, also known as immunosuppressive drugs, that keep the immune system less active.

Liver disease -


All patients with liver disease are at risk of adverse consequences from the virus. In addition, people with certain liver conditions are extremely vulnerable. They include people with immune-suppression for liver transplantation or for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and people with liver cancer who are undergoing active chemotherapy.

Immune-compromised people -


A person of any age group can be immune-compromised. Conditions that can cause a person to become immune-compromised include cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled AIDS, and prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune weakening medications.

There are reports that, in some Kovid-19 patients, death is probably caused by a cytokine storm when the immune system goes into overdrive, causing damage to healthy tissue as well as multiple organ failure, sepsis, and even That death can also happen.

Conclusion -


Some people are at high risk for a serious infection if they catch Kovid-19. Everyone needs to take steps to protect themselves and others from catching or spreading it. But people in the high-risk category must take all necessary precautions to protect themselves.





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